Border, which never addressed whatsapp phone number list the growing and complex problems of the states of Amazonas and Bolívar, affected by environmental destruction and violence caused by mining extractivism. While whatsapp phone number list the geopolitical scenarios changed, the borders were reinforced as spaces of confrontation, especially with neighboring Colombia. As has been shown in countless whatsapp phone number list case studies, closing borders does not solve problems, on the contrary, it aggravates them and creates new niches of conflict.
We can also corroborate whatsapp phone number list this at the borders of Venezuela and Colombia, especially during the year of closure 2015-2016. This decision affected geographies with close socio-spatial whatsapp phone number list organizations in their bordering locations and intense cross-border mobility, high degrees of interdependence, complementarity and shared geocultural spaces, with territorial dynamics that project interactions at regional scales and configure wide spaces whatsapp phone number list of economic and social relations. With the closure of the borders, social deterioration worsened and the construction of trails used as illegal shortcuts for cross-border mobility controlled by groups of criminal extortionists multiplied.
At the same time, the productive whatsapp phone number list activities of small businesses in border cities and their legal trade flows were severely affected. On a national scale, it became clear that the origin of the shortage of products was not at the border, as was repeated in the hackneyed government discourse. Crisis, emigrants and cross-border mobility The partial opening of the borders in August 2016 whatsapp phone number list was decreed at a time when the Venezuelan crisis was worsening, reflected in indicators such as the increase in multidimensional poverty (46.2%), an accelerated inflationary process (550 %) and shortages of food (72%) and medicine (85%)10, warning of an whatsapp phone number list unprecedented humanitarian crisis in the country's history.